Robyn Miller took the stage at GDC in a baseball cap and hoodie, looking a bit like a celebrity who didn’t want to be recognized. “I never would have expected that twenty years ago, when we made Myst, anybody would be interested in it twenty years later,” he started. “This is pretty incredible.” A few slides into his talk, he realized he hadn’t introduced himself: “I should say—Rand Miller, my brother, and I’m Robyn Miller—we were the guys who made Myst.” He seemed surprised when the audience broke out in cheers.
Robyn and Rand Miller, twenty years ago. “I don’t know where we got the idea for two brothers. It had to be subconscious on some level,” Robyn joked of Myst’s storyline.
Part of GDC’s ongoing Classic Game Postmortem series, Miller’s talk detailed the creation of Cyan Worlds’ 1993 sensation. The story began about five years earlier, when Rand suggested they team up to create an interactive storybook using Hypercard. At first, Robyn wasn’t really interested—in fact, he didn’t even have a computer. Rand sent him a copy of Hypercard to try out on the computer in their parents’ basement. “I started drawing a manhole cover—that was the first part of the story—and I continued drawing a linear story. I drew the manhole cover open, and I just continued drawing, sequentially, this storybook,” Miller said. “But I got to this vine growing out of the manhole, and I didn’t know what I wanted to do at that point. I didn’t know if I wanted to go up the vine or down into the manhole. And from there, the medium itself became nonlinear. It’s as if the medium was calling out to be nonlinear. It was not something that we really invented at that point in time or were trying to do, it just happened on its own.”
This early attempt became The Manhole, which the brothers’ new company Cyan released in 1988. From there they continued making similar kids’ games, all with the same qualities: black and white graphics, point-and-click controls, and a first-person point of view with the player serving as the in-game protagonist as if transported into this new world. “You didn’t have an avatar. You were the person in that world wandering around,” Miller said. “[The games] also had this quality of everything being explorable. We realized as we watched people play that people would see a door and they would definitely want to go through that door, but if people saw something like a forest in the distance, they wanted to go through that forest. No matter what it was—a drawer, anything—they wanted to be able to explore the entire world. They didn’t want any boundaries to that world, so we attempted as much as possible to create no boundaries.”
A screenshot from The Manhole
Around 1990, after releasing five products for children, they wanted to make one of these worlds for adults. They came up with an idea for a “goal-oriented fantasy adventure” named The Grey Summons, a “totally textless environment” that would convey information via the player’s natural senses. It would have real-time animation, digitized sound and dialogue, and “no mindless ‘shoot and kill’; this world must be navigated by cleverness and tact.” They pitched it to Activision, who told them to stick to children’s games. “We were not doing very well at that point in time. I’m not exaggerating, we were eating rice and beans and government cheese, and that was our diet. We were probably very healthy,” Robyn joked, “but this was potentially the end of our career in gaming.” Soon after this, their luck changed when a Japanese publisher, Sunsoft, approached the Millers about making a game for an older audience that Sunsoft would bring to consoles, and Cyan could release for computers. “It blew our minds,” Robyn said. “We were on board totally, we just had no idea what to do.”
As they’d pitched in The Grey Summons, they knew they wanted to create a world that could be freely explored, a non-linear story with believable characters, more advanced graphics than their previous games, some sort of puzzles, and an ethical choice between right and wrong that the player would have to make. Beyond this, they hadn’t yet come up with any of the ideas that would become Myst, but they had some thoughts about how playing the game should feel. Their other brother had played a lot of Dungeons & Dragons growing up, and Rand and Robyn had observed firsthand the creativity and fun that emerged when a really good dungeon master was leading the story. “In fact, Rand created his own dungeon at one point in time, and what he threw out was rolling to create your characters, rolling for dexterity, rolling for strength,” Miller explained. “He said, ‘You guys are going to play this and just be yourselves, use your own intelligence, just observe within this universe.’ And in fact he never used dice at all, he just told people what they saw, within that universe.” The storytelling and sense of adventure that resulted was what they wanted to achieve in their new game.
Rand Miller’s D&D dungeon. “When we were creating Myst, we got to the last age we were designing, the Mechanical Age, and we used this as a part of the design,” Robyn Miller said.
Zork was another inspiration—both brothers had played it, and liked how it presented a non-linear world to explore. (When asked by an audience member about the third-person adventure games of Sierra and LucasArts, Miller admitted that Rand may have played them, but these games weren’t on his radar.) C.S. Lewis’s The Chronicles of Narnia inspired Myst’s otherworldly portals, and the works of Jules Verne inspired the “mysterious” island itself, as well as the old, leather-bound books that appear in Myst Island’s library. Star Wars was another influence: “The myth behind that universe was deeply inspirational.”
The Millers knew going into preproduction that they wanted Myst to have puzzles, but they didn’t want the puzzles to be arbitrary. “We had an idea that most people don’t like puzzles. Gamers love puzzles but we weren’t creating Myst for gamers. We were creating the game for, essentially, non-gamers,” Miller said, noting that a good puzzle shouldn’t feel like a puzzle. They wanted Myst’s puzzles to feel familiar and not arbitrary—like part of the world, something players could figure out with observation and basic common sense. He admitted that not all of Myst’s puzzles achieved this: “We made some really bad puzzles in Myst; there’s one or two that just suck… But we also made some good ones, and to a certain extent I think Myst works because of that.”
Robyn and Rand designed the game without having to consider sales projections or cater to outside expectations. “We just had a ton of fun. We didn’t have to second guess any of our choices,” Miller said. “We got to explore the world as we were designing, which was fantastic. I think it was a rare experience. We were literally just creating this world for ourselves, and I think that was one of the reasons Myst did well.” With the design completed, they proposed Myst to Sunsoft, who loved it. The Millers asked for a $265k budget: “We came up with what we thought it would cost, doubled it, and added a bunch more.” (They ended up exceeding this, but Miller said later in the talk that it never occurred to them to ask Sunsoft for more money.)
Pages from the Myst proposal Cyan sent to Sunsoft
Before jumping in on development, they playtested the game in a D&D fashion, with the “dungeon master” narrating scenes like: “You are standing at one end of a wooden dock. To your right, the mast of a sunken ship sticks out of the water. At the opposite end of the dock, a stone staircase rises to the top of a hillock, at the top of which rests a gigantic gear. A few steps away, at the base of the stairs, rests a contraption—about waist-high—you don’t know what it is. What do you do?” In this way, they were able to fine-tune the gameplay before getting too far into development.